Cancer Information

Most Common Cancer’s Are:

Bladder cancer
  • The most common type of Urinary Bladder Cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, that line the inside of the bladder. This type of cancer is also called Urothelial Carcinoma. Other types of bladder cancer include Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the bladder) and Adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
  • People who smoke have an increased risk of Bladder Cancer. Being exposed to certain chemicals and having chronic bladder infections can also increase the risk of Bladder Cancer.
  • The most common sign of Bladder Cancer is blood in the urine. Bladder Cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is easier to treat.
Lung cancer
  • The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs inside the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and send carbon dioxide out of the body when breathing out.
  • The two main types of lung cancer are Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Small Cell Lung Cancer. The types are based on the way the cells look under a microscope. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer is much more common than Small Cell Lung Cancer.
  • Most cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer.
Brain cancer
  • The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). Brain and spinal cord tumors are growths of abnormal cells in tissues of the brain or spinal cord. Tumors that start in the brain are called Primary Brain Tumors. A tumor that starts in another part of the body and spreads to the brain is called a metastatic Brain Tumor.
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors may be either benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).
  • Both benign and malignant tumors cause signs and symptoms and need treatment. Benign brain and spinal cord tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain but rarely spread into other parts of the brain. Malignant brain and spinal cord tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain.
  • There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. They form in different cell types and different areas of the brain and spinal cord. The signs and symptoms of brain and spinal cord tumors depend on where the tumor forms, its size, how fast it is growing, and the age of the patient.
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors can occur in both adults and children. The types of tumors that form and the way they are treated are different in children and adults.
  • The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on many factors, including age, tumor size, tumor type, and where the tumor is in the CNS.
Breast cancer
  • The breast is made up of glands called lobules that can make milk and thin tubes called ducts that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple. Breast tissue also contains fat and connective tissue, lymph nodes, and blood vessels.
  • The most common type of breast cancer is Ductal Carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. Breast cancer can also begin in the cells of the lobules and in other tissues in the breast. Ductal Carcinoma in situ is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of the ducts but they haven’t spread outside the duct. Breast cancer that has spread from where it began in the ducts or lobules to surrounding tissue is called invasive breast cancer. In inflammatory breast cancer, the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin.
Cervical cancer
  • The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).
  • The main types of Cervical Cancer are Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the cervix. Adenocarcinoma begins in cervical cells that make mucus and other fluids.
  • Long-lasting infections with certain types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) cause almost all cases of Cervical Cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with these types of HPV can greatly reduce the risk of Cervical Cancer. Having a Pap test to check for abnormal cells in the cervix or a test to check for HPV can find cells that may become Cervical Cancer. These cells can be treated before cancer forms.
  • Cervical Cancer can usually be cured if it is found and treated in the early stages.
Colorectal cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.
  • Most Colorectal Cancers are Adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Colorectal CANCER often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Some polyps become cancer over time. Finding and removing polyps can prevent Colorectal Cancer.
Esophageal cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food and liquids from the throat to the stomach.
  • The most common types of Esophageal Cancer are Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma begins in flat cells lining the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids.
  • Smoking and heavy alcohol use increase the risk of esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett esophagus may increase the risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.
  • Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because there are no early signs or symptoms.
Prostate cancer
  • The prostate gland makes fluid that forms part of semen. The prostate lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body).
  • Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.
  • Prostate Cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65. Talk to your doctor about your risk of prostate cancer and whether you need screening tests.
Kidney cancer

    There are two kidneys, one on each side of the spine, above the waist. The kidneys clean the blood to take out waste and make urine. Urine collects in the renal pelvis, the area at the center of the kidney, and then passes through the ureter, into the bladder, and out of the body. The kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure and signal the bone marrow to make red blood cells when needed.

    There are three main types of kidney cancer. Renal Cell Cancer is the most common type in adults and Wilms Tumors are the most common in children. These types form in the tissues of the kidney that make urine. Transitional Cell Cancer forms in the renal pelvis and ureter in adults.

    Smoking and taking certain pain medicines for a long time can increase the risk of adult kidney cancer. Certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of kidney cancer in children and adults. These include von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and Hereditary Papillary Renal Cancer.

    Kidney tumors may be benign or malignant.

    Bone Cancer
  • Bone cancer is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells that make up the bones of the body. This is also known as Primary Bone Cancer. When cancer is detected in bones, it either originated in the bones (as in primary bone cancer) or has spread to the bone after originating elsewhere (cancer that has metastasized to bone).
  • Breast, prostate, and lung cancers are among the types of cancers that commonly spread to the bone in their advanced stages.
  • Bone cancers are more common in children and younger adults than in older people. Cancer found in the bones of an older adult usually has spread to the bone after originating from another location in the body.
  • Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. The pain may initially develop at certain times of the day, often at night, or with physical activity. The pain tends to progress and worsen over time.
Leukemia
  • Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. Most blood cells form in the bone marrow. In leukemia, immature blood cells become cancer. These cells do not work the way they should and they crowd out the healthy blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Different types of leukemia depend on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer. For example, Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a cancer of the Lymphoblasts (white blood cells, which fight infection). White blood cells are the most common type of blood cell to become cancer. But red blood cells (cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body) and platelets (cells that clot the blood) may also become cancer.
  • Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55 years, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15 years.
  • Leukemia can be either acute or chronic. Acute leukemia is a fast-growing cancer that usually gets worse quickly. Chronic leukemia is a slower-growing cancer that gets worse slowly over time. The treatment and prognosis for leukemia depend on the type of blood cell affected and whether the leukemia is acute or chronic.
Thyroid cancer
  • The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the windpipe. It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. A thin piece of tissue connects the two lobes. The thyroid makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight.
  • There are four types of thyroid cancer. These are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Papillary is the most common type of thyroid cancer.
  • Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer is hard to cure with current treatment. Other types of thyroid cancer can usually be cured.
  • Being exposed to radiation to the head and neck as a child increases the risk of Thyroid Cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as Familial Medullary Thyroid Cancer, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A Syndrome, and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Syndrome can also increase the risk of Thyroid Cancer.
Liver cancer
  • The liver has many important functions in the body. For example, it cleans toxins from the blood, makes bile that helps digest fat, makes substances that help blood clot, and makes, stores, and releases sugar for energy.
  • Primary Liver Cancer is cancer that starts in the liver. The most common type of Primary Liver Cancer is Hepatocellular Carcinoma, which occurs in the tissue of the liver. When cancer starts in other parts of the body and spreads to the liver, it is called liver metastasis.
  • Liver Cancer is rare in children and teenagers, but there are two types of liver cancer that can form in children. Hepatoblastoma occurs in younger children, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma occurs in older children and teenagers.
  • The bile ducts are tubes that carry bile between the liver and gallbladder and the intestine. Bile duct cancer is also called Cholangiocarcinoma. When it begins in the bile ducts inside the liver, it is called Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. When it begins in the bile ducts outside the liver, it is called Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma is much more common than Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.
Head and Nack Cancer
  • Head and neck cancers are cancers that start in the tissues and organs of the head and neck. They include cancers of the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands.
  • Most head and neck cancers begin in squamous cells, which are cells that line moist surfaces such as those inside the head and neck (for example, the mouth, nose, and throat). Salivary glands have many different types of cells that can become cancer so there are many different types of salivary gland cancer.
  • Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of many types of head and neck cancer.
  • To get the right information about treatment and prognosis, you need to know exactly what type of head and neck cancer you have and what stage it is.